If you’d like to learn more about the Barbary conflicts, see these lists of primary and secondary sources!
Baepler, Paul, ed. White Slaves, African Masters: an Anthology of American Barbary Captivity Narratives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Cantor, Milton, ed. “A Connecticut Yankee in a Barbary Court: Joel Barlow’s Algerian Letters to His Wife.” The William and Mary Quarterly 19, no. 1 (1962).
Giunta, Mary, ed. The Emerging Nation: A Documentary History of the Foreign Relations of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, 1780-1789. 3 vols. Washington D.C.: National Historical Publications and Records Commission, 1996.
Knox, Dudley, ed. Naval Documents Related to the United States Wars with the Barbary Powers. 6 vols. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1939.
Oberg, Barbara, ed. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950- .
Stagg, J.C.A., ed. The Papers of James Madison: Secretary of State Series. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1986- .
American State Papers, Foreign Relations 1789-1838; The Library of Congress, American Memory. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwsplink.html#anchor1
The George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799. <http://memory.loc.gov/ ammem/gwhtml/gwhome.html>.
James Cathcart, The Captives, Eleven Years in Algiers. http://www.archive.org/details/captives00cathrich
James Cathcart’s Letter Book. http://www.archive.org/details/tripolifirstwar00cathgoog
Naval Documents Related to the United States Wars with the Barbary Powers. 6 Vols. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1939.<http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000367640>
The Thomas Jefferson Papers Series 1: General Correspondence, 1651-1827. The Library of Congress, American Memory.<http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/jefferson_papers/ mtjabout.html>.
Adams, Henry. History of the United States of America during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. New York: Viking, 1986.
Allison, Robert. The Crescent Obscured: the United States and the Muslim World, 1776-1815. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Battistini, Robert. “Glimpses of the Other before Orientalism: The Muslim World in Early American Periodicals, 1785–1800.” Early American Studies: an Interdisciplinary Journal 8, no. 2 (2010).
Baepler, Paul. “The Barbary Captivity Narrative in American Culture.” Early American Literature 39, no. 2 (2004)
Benchérif, Osman. The Image of Algeria in Anglo-American Writings, 1785-1962. Lanham: University Press of America, 1997.
Carruth, Mary, ed. Feminist Interventions in Early American Studies. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006.
Carson, David. “Congress, and the Question of Leadership in the Tripolitan War.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 94, no. 4 (1986).
Davis, Robert. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800. New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2003.
Edwards, Samuel. Barbary General: the Life of William H. Eaton. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1968.
Field, James. America and the Mediterranean World, 1776-1802. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.
Folayan, Kola. Tripoli during the Reign of Yūsuf Pāshā Qaramānlī. Ile-Ife, Nigeria: University of Ife Press, 1979.
Gallagher, Charles. The United States and North Africa. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.
Headley, Janet. “The Monument without a Public: The Case of the Tripolitan Monument.” Winterthur Portfolio 29, no. 4 (Winter 1994).
Irwin, Ray. The Diplomatic Relations of the United States with the Barbary Powers, 1776-1816. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1931.
Jones, Howard. Crucible of Power: a History of America Foreign Relations to 1913. 2nd ed. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.
Kitzen, Michael. Tripoli and the United States at War: a History of American Relations with the Barbary States, 1785-1805. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, 1993.
Kritzer, Amelia. Plays by Early American Women, 1775-1850. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995.
Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005.
Leiner, Frederick. The End of Barbary Terror: America’s 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
London, Joshua. Victory in Tripoli: How America’s War with the Barbary Pirates Established the U.S. Navy and Built a Nation. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President: First Term, 1801-1805. Vol. 4 of Jefferson and His Time. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.
―. Jefferson the President: Second Term, 1805-1809. Vol. 5 of Jefferson and His Time. Boston: Little, Brown, 1974.
Marr, Timothy. The Cultural Roots of American Islamicism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Parker, Richard. Uncle Sam in Barbary: a Diplomatic History. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2004.
Parker, William. A Concise History of the United States Marine Corps, 1775-1969. Washington D.C.: United States Marine Corps, 1970.
Peskin, Lawrence. Captives and Countrymen: Barbary Slavery and the American Public, 1785-1816. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2009.
Roberts, Priscilla and Richard. Thomas Barclay (1728-1793): Consul in France, Diplomat in Barbary. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press, 2008.
Rojas, Martha. “‘Insults Unpunished’ Barbary Captives, American Slaves, and the Negotiation of Liberty.” Early American Studies: an Interdisciplinary Journal 1, no. 2 (2003).
Thomson, Ann. Barbary and Enlightenment: European Attitudes towards the Maghreb in the 18th Century. New York: Leiden, 1987.
Wheelan, Joseph. Jefferson’s War: America’s First War on Terror, 1801-1805. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2004.
Whipple, A.B.C. To the Shores of Tripoli. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1991.
Wright, Louis, and Julia Maclead. The First Americans in North Africa: William Eaton’s Struggle for a Vigorous Policy against the Barbary Pirates, 1799-1805. New York: Greenwood University Press, 1969.
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